Updated on December 2015! – Now for Celery 3.1.19 and Django 1.8.7.
This post explains how to set up Celery with Django, using RabbitMQ as a message broker.
It also explains how to create a Periodic Task
The Broker RabbitMQ
First, we need to choose what is called a Message Broker, required by Celery in order to send and receive messages. Here we will use RabbitMQ, which is feature-complete, stable, durable and easy to install. Moreover, it is the default broker so it does not require additional configuration 🙂
$ brew install rabbitmq
The RabbitMQ server scripts are installed into /usr/local/sbin. This is not automatically added to your path, so open or edit a .bash_profile in your home folder and add the following line
The server can then be started with
$ sudo rabbitmq-server -detached
Where the -detached flag indicates the server to run in the background. To stop the server use
$ sudo rabbitmqctl stop
You can find a detailed description on how to use RabbitMQ with Celery here.
After installing RabbitMQ we need to create a RabbitMQ user, a virtual host and allow that user to access the virtual host. We also start the server before that:
$ sudo rabbitmq-server -detached $ sudo rabbitmqctl add_user myuser mypassword $ sudo rabbitmqctl add_vhost myvhost $ sudo rabbitmqctl set_permissions -p myvhost myuser ".*" ".*" ".*"
Then, open your Django project settings.py file and configure RabbitMQ by adding the lines:
BROKER_URL = "amqp://myuser:mypassword@localhost:5672/myvhost"
This tells celery, where your broker (your queue) is located. Here, we are running Celery at the same machine as RabbitMQ and using the localhost to find it.
Celery is on the Python Package Index (PyPi), and can be easily installed with pip or easy_install. Remember to activate first your virtual environment (if you want to install Virtualenv to create a virtual enviroment check this post).
$ pip install celery
Next, add this package to your requirements.txt file, so that both the production environment and the development environment on your local machine will use it. Recall that you can check the packages used by the current environment with
$ pip freeze
You will see that you have installed celery, pytz, billiard, kombu, anyjson and amqp. Write them all on your requirements file. You can also write them directly by using
$ pip freeze > requirements.txt
Now, we need to create a Celery instance, called a Celery app. Create a file at the same level of your settings.py file:
$ touch myprojectfolder/myproject/celery.py
And write the following code:
import os from celery import Celery from django.conf import settings # Indicate Celery to use the default Django settings module os.environ.setdefault('DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE', 'myproject.settings') app = Celery('myproject') app.config_from_object('django.conf:settings') # This line will tell Celery to autodiscover all your tasks.py that are in your app folders app.autodiscover_tasks(lambda: settings.INSTALLED_APPS)
Then, to ensure that the app is loaded when Django starts, you need to import this app in the __init__.py file.
Open the __init__.py file that is at the same level than the settings.py and celery.py files and write:
from .celery import app as celery_app
Moreover, for security purposes, you should specify a list of accepted content-types in the settings.py file. In this case, we will set json as our content type:
CELERY_ACCEPT_CONTENT = ['json']
Then, we need to specify the task serializer accordingly:
CELERY_TASK_SERIALIZER = 'json' CELERY_RESULT_SERIALIZER = 'json'
Finally, we can specify the time zone we are in:
CELERY_TIMEZONE = 'Europe/Madrid'
Note: In Celery 3.0+ the setting CELERY_ENABLE_UTC is enabled by default (it is set to True). This setting, if enabled, makes the dates and times in messages to be converted to use the UTC timezone.
If you want to store task results in the Django database, you’ll have to install the django-celery package. This package defines a result backend to keep track of the state of the tasks. To install it use:
$ pip install django-celery
remember to include it in your requirements file. Then, add it to your installed apps in your settings file:
INSTALLED_APPS( ... 'djcelery', ... )
Next, we need to create the corresponding database tables of this app, which can be done with:
$ python manage.py migrate djcelery
As we have indicated Celery to use our settings.py file, we can configure Celery to use the django-celery backend by adding this line into the settings.py file:
CELERY_RESULT_BACKEND = 'djcelery.backends.database:DatabaseBackend' CELERYBEAT_SCHEDULER = 'djcelery.schedulers.DatabaseScheduler'
Create a Periodic Task
One thing you might want to use in your project is a Scraper, which is, for example, an aplication that runs periodicaly at night to update some data for your web site.
Choose or create an application in your Django project to include the Scraper. Then, create and edit the file myapp/utils/scrapers.py (note: you must have an empty __init__.py file inside the utils folder). The scrapers.py file must contain a function that performs your desired operations, like accessing an API and modifying your database.
In this example, we just write:
def scraper_example(a, b): return a + b
Then, create the file myapp/tasks.py and edit it:
from celery.task.schedules import crontab from celery.decorators import periodic_task from myapp.utils import scrapers from celery.utils.log import get_task_logger from datetime import datetime logger = get_task_logger(__name__) # A periodic task that will run every minute (the symbol "*" means every) @periodic_task(run_every=(crontab(hour="*", minute="*", day_of_week="*"))) def scraper_example(): logger.info("Start task") now = datetime.now() result = scrapers.scraper_example(now.day, now.minute) logger.info("Task finished: result = %i" % result)
Here, we have created a periodic task that will run every minute, and that writes into the logger two messages indicating the beginning and the end of the task, and also calls our scraper function.
$ sudo rabbitmq-server -detached
Next, start a Celery worker
$ python manage.py celeryd --verbosity=2 --loglevel=DEBUG
If the installation is correct, you should see at the top of the text displayed something like
transport: amqp://myuser@localhost:5672/myvhost results: djcelery.backends.database:DatabaseBackend
And a list of the application tasks:
[tasks] . celery.backend_cleanup . ......etc . myapp.tasks.scraper_example
Next, open a new tab and start celerybeat, which will send the registered tasks periodically to RabbitMQ:
$ python manage.py celerybeat --verbosity=2 --loglevel=DEBUG
If you go back to the Celery worker tab, you will see the results of your tasks 🙂
And finally, open another tab and start your Django developement server:
$ python manage.py runserver
Note: Beat needs to store the last run times of the tasks in a local database file, which by default is celerybeat-schedule.db and it’s placed at the same level of your manage.py file. If you are using Git as version control, you should include this file into your gitignore file.
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How to create a Periodic Task with Celery and Django. Retweet it to your followers, they may find it interesting! 🙂 http://t.co/4VL44OQXng
— Marina Mele (@Marina_Mele) February 16, 2014
Marina Mele has experience in artificial intelligence implementation and has led tech teams for over a decade. On her personal blog (marinamele.com), she writes about personal growth, family values, AI, and other topics she’s passionate about. Marina also publishes a weekly AI newsletter featuring the latest advancements and innovations in the field (marinamele.substack.com)